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Hawthornden Estate (1888-1983)

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Hawthornden Estate @ Anak Bapak, 1968
Hawthornden Estate @ Anak Bapak, 1968 (Orang Wangsa Maju, 26 November 2020: "Lepas melawat ladang...").

1888-10: Pembukaan

Towards the end of 1888 the late Mr. William Dougal, Manager of the Chartered Bank in Singapore, Mr. Sword of the Straits Trading Company, Mr. Currie of the Borneo Company and myself (F.A. Toynbee) obtained a grant of 1,500 acres of land in the Setapak valley, in three blocks of 500 acres each, named, respectively, “Hawthornden”, “Roslin” and “Lincoln” after those places at home.” (F. A. Toynbee @ The Selangor Journal: Jottings Past and Present, Volume 1, No. 15, 7 April 1893: |"COFFEE"; The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (1884-1942), 13 April 1893, Page 2: |"COFFEE IN THE STRAITS").

Pada Oktober 1888, Ladang “Ulu Gonggang” di Batu 5 Jalan Pahang Kuala Lumpur (di penghujung sebelah utara pusat perlombongan Gonggang) telah dibuka oleh F. A. Toynbee, bekas pengurus ladang Weld's Hill kepunyaan syarikat Messrs. Hill and Rathborne: “I have the honour to enclose an application from Mr. F. A. Toynbee, Manager of Weld's Hill Estate for one thousand acres of land lying between the 5th mile post Pahang Road and Ulu G®onggang for the purpose of planting coffee and pepper, as shown on his rough sketch attached to his letter. The land is hilly and well suited for the purpose, and though bordering on extensive mining properties, is not likely, on account of its conformation, to be required for mines. I therefore recommend that it be granted to Mr. Toynbee at the usual figure for forest land of $3 premium and 10c quit rent per acre, and that he be allowed the refusal of the intervening land, which is of the same nature, for 3 years, or the first choice of taking it up if it be applied for in the meantime by other parties. No exclusive right to the timber on the land can be granted, but the right of the lessee to cut what he wants for himself is not likely to be interfered with by the Government.” (Henry Conway Belfield @ PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 09/10/1888: |"ENCLOSES AN APPLICATIONS FROM MR.F.A.TOYNBEE MANAGER OF WELDS HILLS ESTATE FOR ONE THOUSAND ACRES OF LAND LYING BETWEEN THE 5TH MILE POST PAHANG ROAD AND ULU GONGGANG FOR THE PURPOSE OF PLANTING COFFEE & PEPPER").

Kemungkinan ladang Ulu Gonggang ini berkembang ke Batu 6 Jalan Pahang, dan dinamakan sebagai Ladang Hawthornden. Ladang ini kemudiannya berkembang ke timur/tenggara sehingga merangkumi sebahagian besar kawasan Bukit Dinding: “The opening of the Hawthornden Estate on the Pahang Road (6th mile) has given an impetus to planting enterprise in this direction. A second private planting company has taken up a thousand acres in this direction and commenced work already. Mr. Toynbee, late manager for Messrs. Hill and Rathborne, has done a great deal towards proving the success of planting enterprise in this state and it is to be hoped that the private enterprise on which he is now embarking will bring him the success he deserves.” (The Singapore Free Press and Mercantile Advertiser (Weekly), 5 July 1889, Page 15: |"SELANGOR NEWS").

“To: The Hon. W. E. (William Edward) Maxwell. ? British Resident, Selangor. Sir, I have the honor to acknowledge and thank you for your letter of the 24th August 89 and to inform you that I have communicated with my Singapore partners on the subject as I am anxious to learn their views regarding paying the premium in full or remitting(?) premium, as I understand from your letter you are kind enough to take this into consideration. I have the honor to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, F. A. Toynbee.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 02/09/1889: |"ACKNOWLEDGES LETTER OF 24TH AUGUST '89 RE REMISSION OF PREMIUMS ON CONCESSIONS").

LATAR PERISTIWA: Gonggang / Setapak (1800-an)

LATAR PERISTIWA: Hutan Bukit Dinding

1892-02-29: Permohonan Tanah Relau Batu Kapur

Antara lakaran peta terawal ladang-ladang lembah Setapak yang dapat ditemui ialah pada surat F.A. Toynbee bertarikh 29 Februari 1892. Beliau telah mewakili para pemilik ladang-ladang tersebut, memohon tanah bagi pembinaan relau batu kapur bersebelahan Wardieburn dan Mount estate:-

“29th February 1892. To: The Government Secretary, Kuala Lumpur, Selangor. Sir, 1. On behalf of the Setapak Valley planters I have the honor to ask you if the Government will grant us a small block of land situated as shown in sketch attached. 2. If so on what terms the Government are prepared to grant us this land. The purpose for which we ask for this block of land is to enable us to construct a lime kiln that we may burn our lime as we require large quantities for the estates. The size of the block asked for you may a large one for this purpose, but our reason for asking for such a large block is that we may obtain sufficient timber on the ? for the lime kiln. I have the honor to be, your obedient servant, For Setapak Valley Planters, F.A. Toynbee.” (Arkib Negara 1957/0030379W, 29/02/1892: |"(APPLICATION FOR LAND) APPLIES FOR ABOUT 200 ACRES OF LAND IN THE SETAPAK VALLEY ON BEHALF OF THE SETAPAK VALLEY PLANTERS, TO CONSTRACT A "LIME KILN"").

Peta ladang-ladang lembah Setapak (termasuk Hawthornden), 1892Peta ladang-ladang lembah Setapak (termasuk Hawthornden), 1904
Kiri: Lakaran ladang-ladang lembah Setapak (termasuk Hawthornden, diwarnakan hijau tua), yang telah disertakan di dalam surat permohonan di atas (1892)
Kanan: Peta tahun 1904, menunjukkan sempadan ladang-ladang yang sama (termasuk Hawthornden, diwarnakan hijau tua). (berdasarkan peta Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1904 @ Yale University Library - Digital Collections: |"Selangor, Federated Malay States, 1904 / John Bartholomew & Co ; W.T. Wood, chief draftman").

1892-04-13: Permohonan Pelaburan A.S. Baxendale

“Postal & Telegraph Department, Selangor. Head Quarters' Office, Kuala Lumpur, 13th April 1892. Sir, I have the honor to request that you will inform me if the Govt would have any objection to my investing money in the Hawthornden Coffee Estate 2) I would have no voice in the management of the Estate which is owned by a small company. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your most obedient Servant, A.S. Baxendale, Superintendent, Posts & Telegraphs, Selangor. To: The Govt. Sec. Selangor.” (Arkib Negara 1957/0031333W, 13/04/1892: |"ASKS IF THE GOVERNMENT WOULD ALLOW HIM TO INVEST IN THE HAWTHORNDEN ESTATE").

1892-06-10: Permohonan Peluasan Ladang

Pada 10 Jun 1892, L. Dougal (pemilik Lincoln Estate, dan rakan kongsi F.A. Toynbee di Hawthornden Estate), memohon peluasan ladang di sebelah timur kawasan sedia ada: “Hawthornden Estate, Selangor. 10th June 1892. Sir, I have the honor to inform you that for some months past I have been negotiating with my friends in Europe re opening a Coffee Estate in Selangor & by last mail received a favorable reply. I enclose sketch showing the land I am desirous of taking up for this purpose. I shall be glad to hear on an early date.”

Pihak pentadbir mengarahkan tinjauan dibuat, kerana khuatir tanah yang dipohon itu bertindan dengan Aberscross Estate: “Govt. Sec S., Please pass to Survey Office and ask them to plot Aberscross on the district plan. I can then establish some connection between the position of Aberscross and the customary holdings in the neighbourhood. -?, 13/6”

Setelah Residen melawat kawasan tersebut, kemungkinan permohonan ini ditarik balik kerana bertindan dengan Aberscross Estate milik Murray Campbell itu: “Govt. Sec S., The ? ? this application is enclosed in ? 4511/92 in which paper I have referred to this one. On the occasion of the Resident's visit to the coffee estates on the 3rd inst. I understood ? ? to withdraw application which clashes with that of Mr Murray Campbell. -?, 18.7”

Lakaran peta L. Dougal menunjukkan permohonan peluasan tanah ladang mereka (ditandakan hijau tua)Menurut peta tahun 1904, kawasan yang dipohon itu (yang didapati bertindan dengan Aberscross Estate, ditandakan hijau tua), turut meliputi sebahagian besar Bukit Dinding. Kiri: Lakaran peta L. Dougal menunjukkan permohonan peluasan tanah ladang mereka (ditandakan hijau tua), di sebelah timur tanah yang asal (ditandakan hijau muda)
Kanan: Menurut peta tahun 1904, kawasan yang dipohon itu (yang didapati bertindan dengan Aberscross Estate, ditandakan hijau tua), turut meliputi sebahagian kawasan hulu Sungai Gisir di lereng Bukit Dinding. (berdasarkan peta Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1904 @ Yale University Library - Digital Collections: |"Selangor, Federated Malay States, 1904 / John Bartholomew & Co ; W.T. Wood, chief draftman").


1890-1892: Kerja Ukur

Kerja-kerja ukur telah dijalankan di Ladang Hawthornden (bersama Ladang Lincoln dan Aberscross di kawasan yang sama) mulai tahun 1890, untuk tujuan pemetaan dan pengeluaran geran bagi ladang-ladang tersebut. Ianya hanya dapat diselesaikan pada tahun 1892 (mungkin setelah permohonan L. Dougal pada 10 Jun 1892 seperti yang diperincikan di atas), oleh kerana terdapat kawasan hutan tebal di sebelah timur (kemungkinan menghala ke Bukit Dinding) yang dikatakan punca kelewatan:-

“On 6th August 1890 Mr. Surveyor Raymond commenced the survey of the Hawthornden Estate and continued same until 16th Sept. He recommenced on 21st Sept. and completed in Dec. and finally transmitted plan on 30 Dec. 90. … The Chief Surveyor was not satisfied with the manner in which these surveys had been executed, and on 12.5.92 issued instructions for the re-survey of the Lincoln Estate … Mr. Raymond was also instructed to re-survey the Hawthornden Estate, which he is now engaged on. He informs me that he will finish the re-survey of the estates about the end of the present month. There was a large quantity of extra work, and office work in the survey of the Hawthornden Estate. - 11.6.92” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 28/05/1892: |"REQUEST TO CALL FOR THE CORRESPONDENCE REGARDING THE HAWTHORNDEN & LINCOLN ESTATES SAVING").

“Amended Survey: Licensed Surveyor J. Walter Raymond to the Acting Chief Surveyor transmitting plan of and report on Amended Survey of Aberscross Estate - Numbered 3 in the Mukim of Setapak. Kuala Lumpur, July 27th 1892. … Although I have now surveyed a route along which a road can be constructed at a very easy gradient there are nevertheless several places along the line adopted where it may be necessary (in the event of a road being constructed) ten or twelve chains through the jungle to the eastern boundary line were impracticable, and was obliged to abandon this route after losing three days in the attempt to carry out my verbal instructions. I then searched for a better route, and the road now shown on my plan (herewith) is the one I finally adopted. Part of the road I was obliged to cut through heavy jungle at the far side of the course, and also as all the angle pegs had to be brought out from Kwala Lumpur (part of the way carried by bullock cart, and the remaining distance by my survey coolies). I althogether was seven working days occupied in finishing this work which I at first hoped would only take about three days to complete.” (PEJABAT SETIAUSAHA KERAJAAN NEGERI SELANGOR, 16/06/1892: |"REQUESTS THAT ALL DESPATCH BE USED IN COMPLETING THE RESURVEY OF LINCOLN AND HAWTHORNDEN ESTATES.").

1900-06-19: Pindah Milik kepada Borneo Company

“Registrar of Titles Office, Kuala Lumpur, 19th June, 1900. Sir, I have the honour to submit copies of correspondence between myself and Messrs Donaldson and Burkinshaw relating to the transfer of the property held by the Hawthornden Association to the Borneo Company, and to ask for reference to the Legal Adviser for his opinion on the several points raised. 2. I am sending also in a sealed package herewith all my original papers on this matter which contain the several grants and transfers referred to as I expect the Legal Adviser will require to refer to them. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient Servant, ?, Collector of Land Revenue.” (Arkib Negara 1957/0092706W, 19/06/1900: |"TRANSFER OF THE PROPERTY HELD BY THE HAWTHORNDEN ASSOCIATION TO THE BORNEO COMPANY. REFERENCE TO THE LEGAL ADVISOR ON THE").

1902-05-09: J.D. Toynbee Meninggal Dunia

J.D. Toynbee, saudara kandung serta rakan kongsi pembuka ladang ini, F.A. Toynbee, meninggal dunia pada 9 Mei 1902: “The Malay Mail announces the death, on the 9th instant, of a well known planter there - Mr. J. Toynbee, of Hawthornden estate. The deceased only returned from a holiday a few months ago, having been married whilst in England.” (The Straits Times, 15 May 1902, Page 4: |"Untitled").

1903-1910: Lombong dan Ladang Loke Yew

Pada tahun 1903, Loke Yew telah diberi lesen melombong bijih timah di keseluruhan Hawthorden Estate, dengan keluasan maksima seluas 500 ekar. Setakat tahun 1909, beliau telah membuka seluas ~262 ekar di dalam ladang ini. Jumlah besar keluasan lombong beliau ialah 7,191 ekar, dengan pekerja seramai 15,072 orang: “In 1903 Loke Yew was granted a license to prospect the whole of this Estate for tin with the right to select up to 500 acres; at a premium of $10/- an acre for uncultivated land and $5/- an acre for cultivated land, vide correspondence 6679/03. He has selected in all 262 acres 2 reeds 20 poles and this area he holds under mining lease. … The Warden of Mines reports that Loke Yew holds 7191 acres of mining land and employs 15072 coolies.” (Arkib Negara 1957/0149032W, 01/09/1909: |"APPLICATION FROM TOWKAY LOKE YEW FOR MINING RIGHTS OVER 140 ACRES OF LAND AT SETAPAK FORMING PART OF HOWTHORNDEN ESTATE HELD BY HIM UNDER GRANT NO. 1520").

Contoh surat kelulusan lombong Loke Yew, melibatkan blok seluas 30 ekar di sebahagian Hawthornden Estate, pada 17 Mac 1904: “Office of the Secretary to Resident, K.L. 17 March 1904. Sir, I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter, dated 10th Feb 1904 & numbered L 108/04. Subject: Application of Towkeh Loke Yew for 30 acres of land for mining rights on portion 1, Setapak Mukim. and to inform you that the application for mining rights over the portion coloured red in the tracing was considered in Council on 29th February and approved at a premium of $10 per acre. The area to be mined should be excused from the agricultural title. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, ?, for Secretary to Resident, Sel. To C.L.R., K.L.”

Lakaran peta lokasi Lombong Loke Yew di Hawthornden Estate, 1904Lokasi Lombong Loke Yew di Hawthornden Estate, 1904
Kiri: Lakaran peta lokasi lombong Loke Yew di Hawthornden Estate yang dirujuk oleh surat kelulusan di atas, ditandakan merah.
Kanan: Lokasi lakaran, ditandakan kuning, pada peta tahun 1904. Lokasi lombong ditandakan merah di dalamnya (Berdasarkan peta Edinburgh Geographical Institute, 1904 @ Yale University Library - Digital Collections: |"Selangor, Federated Malay States, 1904 / John Bartholomew & Co ; W.T. Wood, chief draftman").

(Sumber: Arkib Negara 1957/0114444W, 10/02/1904: |"TOWKEH LOKE YEW - APPLIES FOR MINING RIGHTS ON PORTION 1 SETAPAK MUKIM").

Ini merupakan sebahagian daripada lesen perlombongan berluas maksimum 500 ekar, yang telah diluluskan untuk Loke Yew di sekitar Setapak. Hal ini turut dilaporkan di akhbar-akhbar ketika itu:-

  • “Messrs. Loke Yew and C. Meikle have been granted prospecting licenses over agricultural lands at Setapak with an area of 500 and 300 acres for selection respectively.” (Pinang Gazette and Straits Chronicle, 4 May 1904, Page 3: |"The States Day By Day").
  • “We learn from our Kuala Lumpur comtemp. that Towkay Loke Yew is reopening his tin mine at Setapak on a large scale.” (Straits Echo, 15 February 1905, Page 4: |"Lawn Tennis"; The Straits Echo (Mail Edition), 17 February 1905, Page 123: |"Plague").

Pada tahun 1906, berikutan kenaikan harga getah, Loke Yew telah memanfaatkan modal hasil bijih timahnya untuk mengubah kebanyakan tanah-tanah lombongnya kepada perladangan. Hawthornden Estate turut dijadikan campuran ladang getah dan lombong bijih timah (300 ekar lombong, 300 ekar tanaman getah), di bawah pengurusan Mr. A.G. Crane. Jumlah keluasan keseluruhan Hawthornden Estate menjelang tahun 1910 ialah 2,400 ekar:-

  • “Loke Yew continued to demonstrate a lack of long term commitment to the industry. In 1901 he had established the Serendah & Jeher Hydraulic Co. in partnership with Loke Chow Thye and Loke Chow Kit, working on rich mining land in Serendah, Setapak and the surrounding areas. But at the beginning of the rubber boom in 1906 he sold the company and converted the land to rubber cultivation.” (Rajeswary Ampalavanar Brown, 2016: Capital and Entrepreneurship in South-East Asia, m.s. 86).
  • “Capital accumulated in the tin-mining industry was a significant source of investment in the rubber planting industry. As Chinese tin miners faced increasing challenges from European companies at the turn of the century, rubber planting provided them with a new outlet of investment. The Cantonese built up a strong presence in the rubber planting industry as the majority of leading Chinese tin miners were Cantonese. Loke Yew accumulated a vast holding of rubber estates in the 1900s, adding a new dimension to his business empire of tin mining, revenue farming, properties and miscellaneous investments. By 1910 he had several large rubber estates: the Kalumpang and Wayat Estates with W. de L. Brooke as manager and the Changkat Asa Estate with Ho Siew Chee as manager within his concession at Tanjong Malim, Perak; the 2,400-acre Hawthornden Estate with A.G. Crane as manager, the 2,000-acre Bukit Kamuning Estate with R.V. McClelland as manager, and the Serendah Estate in Selangor with P. Hoffner as manager. (Singapore and Straits Directory 1910, p. 396; Singapore and Straits Directory 1920, p. 487.) In 1897 Loke Yew was granted 20,000 acres of land in Ulu Bernam, Selangor, for paddy planting purposes. By 1905 about 4,000 acres in the concession were planted with gambier, pepper, rubber and coconuts, while the original paddy scheme had been dropped. … In terms of the size of rubber estate holdings, he was one of the biggest Chinese rubber estate owners in the 1910s. (Wright and Cartwright, Twentieth Century Impressions, pp. 435-6.)” (William Tai Yuen @ The University of Hong Kong, June 2010: |"Chinese Capitalism in Colonial Malaya, 1900-1941", m.s.193).
  • “Mr. A.G. Crane - Born in Singapore on June 27, 1871, this gentleman is a son of the late Mr. C. E. Crane, who carried on business as a valuer and commission agent in that city for many years, and is now living in retirement in England. After leaving Dedham Grammar School, Mr. A.G. Crane was for some time on his Majesty's training-ship Worcester. He then came out to the East and joined his father's business. Two years later he entered the service of a mercantile firm, and remained with them for two years, when, owing to ill-health, he had to go to Canada. In that country he resided for three years, when, owing to ill-health, he had to go to Canada. In that country he resided for three years, two of which were spent i a silk house and the other in a salmon-tinning business. Returning to the Far East, he joined the Perak Government service, and was in it for four years. At the end of this engagement Mr. Crane went to England to study mining and mineralogy. Having gone through a short college term, he returned to the Federated Malay States in 1904, and, on behalf of a Perak Syndicate, prospected for tin ore in Western Siam for a year and a half. Having selected two tin concessions for the syndicate, he returned to Kuala Lumpor and accepted Towkay Loke Yew's offer of the management of Hawthornden estate, which comprises about 300 acres of tin-mining land and 300 acres planted with rubber. Mr. Crane is an enthusiastic amateur photographer.” (Arnold Wright, H.A. Cartwright, 1908: "Twentieth century impressions of British Malaya: its history, people, commerce, industries, and resources", m.s. 893).

Beberapa contoh rekod pembukaan lombong Loke Yew di dalam Hawthornden Estate pada tahun 1907-1910:-

  • 1907-02-06: “LAND OFFICE, Kuala Lumpur, 6th February, 1907. Subject: Recommends issue of Mining Certificate to Towkay Loke Yew for land in the Mukim of Setapak. Sir, With reference to previous correspondence, S.R.2461/06, regarding an application by Towkay Loke Yew for twenty five acres of land for mining purposes, such land being comprised in the Hawthornden Estate, I have the honour to inform you that Towkay Loke Yew has made application for the issue of a Mining Certificate. As the Superintendent Revenue Surveys states that he cannot tell when a Mining Lease will be prepared, I recommend that Towkay Loke Yew's request for a Mining Certificate be granted. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your Obedient Servant, ?. Ag: Collector of Land Revenue, Kuala Lumpur.” (Arkib Negara 1957/0134342W, 06/02/1907: |"SANCTION TO ISSUE A MINING CERTIFICATE TO TOWKAY LOKE YEW OVER THE LAND APPROVED TO HIM AT SETAPAK -").
  • 1909-09-01: “LAND OFFICE, Kuala Lumpur, 1st September, 1909. Application by Loke Yew for mining rights over 140 acres of land in the Mukim of Setapak. Sir, I have the honour to report the receipt of an application from Loke Yew for mining rights over 140 acres of land at Setapak formin part of Hawthornden Estate held by Loke Yew under Grant No: 1520. … 3. The position of the land the subject of the present application is shown in the accompanying tracing from the plans. The land is uncultivated and I recommend the application for favourable consideration subject to a premium of $10/- per acre.”
    Peta lot-lot tanah lombong dan ladang di dalam Hawthornden Estate, 1909
  • 1910-08-09: “LAND OFFICE, Kuala Lumpur, 9th August, 1910. Application by Towkay Loke Lew(sic:Yew) for mining rights over 35 acres of land held under Grant 1518, Setapak Mukim. Sir, I have the honour to report that Towkay Loke Yew has applied for mining rights over 35 acres of the land held by him under Grant 1518 and known as Hawthornden Estate. 2. Mining rights over this Estate were approved in your correspondence 4288/97 and I have to apply for authority to issue a mining lease for the 35 acres now applied for. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, ?. Collector of Land Revenue, Kuala Lumpur.” (Arkib Negara 1957/0152978W, 09/08/1910: |"APPLICATION FROM TOWKAY LOKE YEW FOR MINING RIGHTS OVER 35 ACRES OF LAND IN SETAPAK MUKIM").

1911-05-11: Permohonan Perkuburan Pekerja

Surat dari pengurus Hawthornden Estate memohon kebenaran bagi 3 kawasan perkuburan di situ (1 India, 2 Cina): “Hawthornden Estate, Kuala Lumpur, 15h May 1911. The Secretary to Resident, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur. Dear Sir, In reply to your letter of 9th inst, I beg to inform you that there are three burial grounds on this estate, one for Tamils, and two for Chinese. I shall be much obliged if you will kindly issue licenses for these when I shall remit the fees if any are payable immediately. Thanking you beforehand. Yours faithfully, ?, Manager.”

Maklumbalas pejabat Residen: “Kuala Lumpur, 18 May, 1911. Sir, In reply to your letter of the 15th instant with reference to burial grounds on Hawthornden Estate, I am directed to inform you that you should apply to the Collector of Land Revenue, Kuala Lumpur for the necessary licenses. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, ?, Secretary to Resident, Selangor.”

(Sumber: Arkib Negara 1957/0157741W, 15/05/1911: |"BURIAL GROUND ON HAWTHORNDEN ESTATE").

1911-05-30: Cadangan Pembinaan Hospital

“Kuala Lumpur, 30th. May 1911. Sir, I have the honour to submit herewith for the - - Resident's approval copy of plan for proposed outhouses for a proposed hospital on Hawthornden Estate, Kuala Lumpur. The hospital itself shall be according to the Government type plan. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, for Loke Yew, ?” (Arkib Negara 1957/0157996W, 30/05/1911: |"PLAN FOR THE PROPOSED OUTHOUSES ATTACHED TO THE HOSPITAL ON HAWTHORNDEN ESTATE").

1912-12-16: Perkuburan Keluarga Loke Yew di Hawthornden Estate

Isteri Loke Yew, Lim Feok Kooi, telah meninggal dunia pada 12.30 tengah malam 16 Disember 1912. Loke Yew memohon 10 ekar tanah Hawthornden Estate untuk perkuburan isterinya ini, serta kaum keluarganya kelak. Surat permohonan disediakan oleh rakannya J.H.M. Robson: “Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States, 17th. December 1912. Sir, I have the honour to inform you that Towkay Loke Yew's wife died at 12.30 a.m. this morning and that he has asked me to obtain the necessary permission to have her buried on Hawthorden(sic:Hawthornden) Estate early on Wednesday morning. 2. The Collector of Land Revenue has very kindly been out this morning to inspect the proposed site and the Health Officer, who has also been good enough to visit the site, is I understand writing in officially to say that he has no objection. 3. This proposed site is situated a long way in from the public road - probably about a mile - and is approached by an estate road. It forms part of the 500 acres held under Grant No. 1518 and is known as portion 2 of the Mukim of Setapak. 4. Mr. Loke Yew would like to have 10 acres of this land cut out and reserved as a burial ground for his family. 5. I am now writing to ask if you will kindly give your sanction under Section 2 of Enactment No.4 of 1910 for Mrs. Loke Yew to be buried at Hawthorden(sic:Hawthornden) Estate on Wednesday morning. 6. I enclose cheque for $500 to cover cost of a license under Section 6 of the Enactment and I enclose the title deed for your inspection. 7. Formal application for sub-division will follow but Mr. Loke Yew would appreciate a reply at your very earliest convenience in order that the friends of the deceased may know where the funeral is to take place. I have the honour to be, Sir, Your obedient servant, J.H.M. Robson.”

Permit perkuburan dikeluarkan pada hari yang sama oleh pemangku Residen Selangor, F.G. Stonor: “Permit for Burial in unlicensed ground. Under the power vested in him by Section 3(ii) of “The Burials Enactment, 1910” the Resident of Selangor hereby authorises the interment of the body of the late Lim Feok Kooi in land held under Selangor Land Grant 1518. Dated at Kuala Lumpur this 16th day of December 1912. Fee paid $100. ? F.G. Stonor, Ag: British Resident, Selangor.”

(Sumber: Arkib Negara 1957/0166765W, 17/12/1912: |"BURIAL OF LATE MRS. LOKE YEW ON HAWTHORDEN ESTATE").

Lebih 4 tahun selepasnya (27 Februari 1917), Loke Yew meninggal dunia dan dikebumikan di tanah perkuburan yang sama (Arkib Negara 1957/0193929W, 27/02/1917: "PERMISSION TO BURY THE BODY OF THE LATE TOWKAY LOKE YEW, C.M.G. ON LAND FORMERLY HELD UNDER GRANT 1518").

Peta lokasi perkuburan keluarga Loke Yew, 1967Peta lokasi perkuburan keluarga Loke Yew, kini
Peta lokasi perkuburan keluarga Loke Yew, tahun 1967 (berdasarkan peta Malaysia : Director of National Mapping, 1967: |"Malaysia, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Series: L8010, Sheet 94k, 1967, 1:25 000") dan kini (berdasarkan Google Maps). Kawasan perkuburan ditanda dengan bulatan merah. Bulatan cokelat: Puncak Bukit Dinding. Bulatan ungu: puncak bukit-bukit kecil, sebagai beberapa mercu tanda kawasan ini. Garis biru: Sungai Peran, anak Sungai Bunus yang merentasi Gonggang Estate (sempadan hijau, iaitu Setiawangsa kini): “Sungai Bunus mempunyai kawasan tadahan seluas 17 kilometer persegi meliputi kawasan Wangsa Maju dan Setiawangsa. Dua anak sungai utamanya ialah Sungai Air Panas yang mengalir dari kawasan tadahan Wangsa Maju dan Sungai Peran meliputi kawasan tadahan Setiawangsa.” (Jabatan Pengairan dan Saliran Malaysia, 2020: |"Laporan Tahunan 2020", m.s.88).

1926-07-01: Penubuhan Hawthornden Rubber Estate Berhad

“Loke Yew was a land owner. On his death in 1917, the Loke Yew residency trust (the trust) was established. In 1926 part of the trust lands of 1905 acres of rubber and 458 acres of mining land were vested in Hawthornden Rubber Estate Ltd. (Hawthornden). The trust retained the land on which the family mansion stood (lot 1305) and the family burial ground. Access to Lot 1305 was through Hawthornden. When Hawthornden considered the possibility of converting part of their property into a housing estate, it mistakenly included Lot 1305. When the error was discovered in 1963, the descendants of Loke Yew formed the appellant company, and the trust was transferred to the appellant Lot 1305 for a consideration of RM162,752.80 in 1964.” (Harun Hashim J @ High Court Malaya, Kuala Lumpur [Tax Appeal No. A3/83], 6 February 1987: |"The Badges of Trade: Motive/Intention of Taxpayer - Bukit Yew")


“Company Name: HAWTHORNDEN RUBBER ESTATE BHD; Company Registration No.: 0000495A / 192601000026; Nature of Business: INVESTMENT & HOLDING COMPANY; Date of Registration: 1926-07-01; State: WILAYAH PERSEKUTUAN” (CTOS Data Systems: |"HAWTHORNDEN RUBBER ESTATE BHD (MALAYSIA)").

Peta sekitar Hawthornden Estate, 1929Peta Hawthornden Estate, 1929
Peta Hawthornden Estate (kanan) dan kawasan sekitarnya (kiri), berdasarkan peta negeri Selangor, tahun 1929. Kelihatan kawasan perlombongan Gonggang telah pun mengecil, digantikan dengan perladangan dan kawasan “padang tembak” (Rifle Range) (Edward Stanford @ F.M.S. Survey Department, 1929: |"1929 F.M.S. Wall Map of Selangor (Kuala Lumpur)").

1934-1938: Rakaman Captain Paddy O'Neill

“Amateur film shot by Captain Paddy O'Neill of the Indian Medical Service, while attached to the Federated Malay States from November 1934 to January 1938, records Chinese and British tin mining scenes, Hawthornden rubber plantation, gardens and swimming pool at Taiping, President of Indian Congress Party Jawaharlal Nehru speaking at political meeting in Taiping and scenes of local Malay life, including sakai natives demonstrating blow-pipes.” (Patrick L O'Neill, 1937 @ Imperial War Museums: |"ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL LIFE IN PRE-WAR MALAYA").

1937: Mogok Pekerja Ladang

1950-an: Keadaan Perlombongan dan Perladangan

Peta sekitar H, 1950Peta Bukit Dinding, 1950
Peta Hawthornden Estate (kanan) dan kawasan sekitarnya (kiri), berdasarkan peta negeri Selangor, tahun 1950 (Surveyor General, Malaya, 1950 @ Australian National University. Kawasan lombong dan ladang, masih seperti tahun 1929: |"Malaysia, Malaya, Selangor 1950, Land Use, South Sheet, 1950, 1:126 720").

1955-02-02: Kebakaran

“Fire on a rubber estate just outside Kuala Lumpur yesterday destroyed 350 acres of the plantation. It was brought under control by 500 firemen, Army personnel, police and labourers after 14 hours. At one stage the blaze on Hawthornden Estate threatened to spread to two neighbouring plantations, Gonggang and Wardieburn estates. Although the fire was under control by 2 a.m., small patches of flames continued till 10 a.m. The 350 acres destroyed were earmarked for replanting. Old rubber land on the estate was being burned when the fire spread. Fire brakes were later dug by soldiers to stop the spread. Hundreds of people from Kuala Lumpur flocked to watch the blaze, which was on hill slopes. Mr. J. Robertson, manager of Hawthornden Estate, said today: “Thanks to the co-operation of the military, police, estate workers and labourers, the fire was brought under control.” Mr. S. Kandiah, Superintendent of the Kuala Lumpur Fire Brigade, said this was the longest fire the brigade had ever fought.” (The Straits Budget, 3 February 1955, Page 18: |"FIRE BURNS 350 ACRES OF ESTATE").

1960-an: Bibit Awal Urbanisasi

Peta Sekitar Hawthornden Estate, 1962Peta Hawthornden Estate, 1962
Peta Bukit Dinding (kanan) dan kawasan sekitarnya (kiri), berdasarkan peta Director of National Mapping, Malaysia, 1962. Kelihatan kawasan perladangan di Gonggang kini merangkumi kawasan padang tembak (Rifle Range) sebelumnya, dan ditandakan sebagai Gonggang Estate: |"Malaysia, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Series: L7010, Sheet 94, 1962, 1:63 360").

Menurut Presiden Pertubuhan Suara Setiawangsa, Harun Mohd Amin, sehingga tahun 1960-an terdapat sebuah air terjun di situ, yang kini telah dikambus atau diubah alirannya mengikut binaan sistem perparitan baru: “Sementara itu, Presiden Pertubuhan Suara Setiawangsa, Harun Mohd Amin berkata, rancangan pembangunan di Bukit Dinding perlu dikaji sebaiknya kerana ia bukan sekadar bukit tetapi merupakan kawasan tadahan dan mempunyai laluan air. Harun juga mendakwa berdasarkan sejarah Bukit Dinding, dahulunya terdapat aliran air terjun namun telah ditutup.” (Hidayah Hairom @ Sinar Harian, 20 November 2014 @ Pusat Maklumat Malaysiana, Perpustakaan Negara Malaysia: "Bukit Dinding diancam bahaya").

1965-09-03: Ladang Hawthornden Mulai Dimajukan

Pada 3 September 1965, kerajaan persekutuan telah mengumumkan perancangan sebuah perbandaran baru di Ladang Wardieburn, termasuk sebahagian kecil Ladang Hawthornden. Kemungkinan kawasan tersebut di sekitar Taman Bunga Raya kini. Ini adalah antara pembangunan terawal yang melibatkan Ladang Hawthornden, yang kemudiannya berkembang ke timur/tenggara, ke arah Bukit Dinding: “Ladang Wardieburn di-Jalan Ulu Klang menjadi sa-buah “Bandar Baru” yang paling moden sa-kali di-Ibukota ini manakala Kerajaan membena kira2 200 penchakar langit 17 tingkat yang mengandongi 42,000 rumah pangsa mulai awal tahun hadapan. … Projek tersebut yang dibahagikan kepada 11 kawasan berasingan akan meliputi seluroh kawasan ladang itu sa-luas 828 ekar termasuk sa-bahagian kechil dari kawasan Ladang Hawthornden.” (Berita Harian, 4 September 1965, Page 5: |"Bandar baru penchakar langit di-Ulu Klang").

Peta Sekitar Hawthornden Estate, 1967Peta Hawthornden Estate, 1967
Peta Hawthornden Estate (kanan) dan kawasan sekitarnya (kiri), berdasarkan peta Malaysia : Director of National Mapping, 1967: |"Malaysia, Selangor, Kuala Lumpur, Series: L8010, Sheet 94k, 1967, 1:25 000").

1983-12-09: Bandar Baru Ladang Hawthornden

Peta sekitar Bukit Dinding, 1982Peta Bukit Dinding, 1982
Peta Hawthornden Estate (kanan) dan kawasan sekitarnya (kiri), berdasarkan peta Malaysia, Jabatanarah Pemetaan Negara @ American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries, 1982: |"Kuala Lumpur / diterbitkan oleh Pengarah Pemetaan Negara". Ketika ini belum ada sebarang pembangunan di Bukit Dinding dan sebahagian besar Ladang Hawthornden di sebelah baratnya.

Pada 9 Disember 1983, Pelan Induk bagi kawasan ini, dikenali sebagai Projek Pusat Pertumbuhan Bandar Baru Ladang Hawthornden, telah diluluskan. Sejak itu, kawasan Wangsa Maju dibangunkan, seksyen demi seksyen, iaitu Seksyen 1 (apartmen kos rendah), Seksyen 2 hingga 4 (apartmen kos sederhana), dan Seksyen 5 (rumah teres, apartmen dan kondominium). Di dalam pelan tersebut, sebahagian daripada Bukit Dinding (ditandakan sebagai “R-12”) telah pun diwartakan sebagai “Tapak Kediaman”, namun tidak dibangunkan, dan masih kekal sebagai kawasan hutan sehingga kini: “Sebelum tahun 1980, keseluruhan kawasan Wangsa Maju merupakan ladang getah yang dikenali sebagai Ladang Hawthornden. Pada tahun 1983, Pelan Induk untuk kawasan ini, dikenali sebagai Projek Pusat Pertumbuhan Bandar Baru Ladang Hawthornden, telah diluluskan, dan ditunjukkan di rajah Figure 3. Tapak Projek ini terletak dalam sector R-12. Gunatanah yang dicadangkan untuk sector R-12 adalah Apartmen Kos Tinggi. Sejak itu, dalam masa 30 tahun sebelum ini, kawasan Wangsa Maju kian dibangunkan, seksyen demi seksyen. Seksyen 1 (apartmen kos rendah), Seksyen 2 hingga 4 (apartmen kos sederhana), dan Seksyen 5 (rumah teres, apartmen dan kondominium) semua telah siap dibangunkan.” (ERINCO Sdn Bhd @ Enviro Knowledge Management Center (EKMC), Jabatan Alam Sekitar, Julai 2017: |"EIA for the Proposed Residential and Commercial Development On Lot 26413 Mukim Setapak and Lot 3538 Mukim Ulu Kelang, Kuala Lumpur For Nova Pesona Sdn Bhd", m.s. 6).

Projek Pusat Pertumbuhan Bandar Baru Ladang Hawthornden
“FIGURE 3: Approved Masterplan for Bandar Baru Ladang Hawthornden” (Peremba Berhad, 9 Disember 1983: Land Use Plan, Kawasan Hawthornden Development Project @ ERINCO Sdn Bhd @ Enviro Knowledge Management Center (EKMC), Jabatan Alam Sekitar, Julai 2017: |"Environment Impact Assessment Report: Proposed Residential and Commercial Development On Lot 26413 Mukim Setapak and Lot 3538 Mukim Ulu Kelang, Kuala Lumpur For Nova Pesona Sdn Bhd:").

Bandar Baru Ladang Hawthornden telah dirasmikan oleh Perdana Menteri ketika itu, Tun Mahathir Mohamad, pada 26 Februari 1984. (PERDANA DIGITAL, Pejabat Perdana Menteri: |"PERASMIAN BANDAR BARU DI LADANG HAWTHORNDEN").

“In 1983, four rubber plantations went through compulsory government acquisition under the then-young Prime Minister, Tun Mahathir.[6] The land acquisition was exercised to tackle the urbanization problem of that era – squatters and insufficient housing for migration of people from the rural area to Kuala Lumpur:

* Ladang Hawthornden
* Ladang Gonggang
* Ladang Kent
* Ladang Wardieburn.

All four plantations were then reclassified and rezoned as “residential lands” - these parcels of lands are then sold to developers.

The vast plantation area - then converted to suburbs - was named Wangsa Maju, the shortened version of Titiwangsa Maju.

One of the plantations – Hawthornden Rubber Estate Company, owned by famous Loke Yew[7] – included plots of lands of the BUKIT DINDING we know today. All of the estates were rezoned as residential, including this plots of land on the hill.

The incidents of notorious landslides of Highland Tower (1993) and Bukit Antarabangsa (2008) had halted slope developments throughout the country. Nevertheless, it is remained unknown why the land plots zoning for slopes of Bukit Dinding (and many other hills in the country) was never rezoned until today.”

(Sumber: Wikipedia: Bukit Dinding: "History").

Gambar Satelit Wangsa Maju Tahun 1989
“Gambar menunjukkan sebahagian Wangsa Maju pada tahun 1989.Perhatikan tapak X-Game BMX yang kini menjadi Alpha Angle, lereng bukit Telekom Seksyen 4 yang pokoknya masih muda belia, tapak Hospital Angkatan Tentera Seksyen 2, padang besar lejen sebelah Masjid Assa'adah Seksyen 1 dan loji kumbahan yang kini menjadi Desa Andaman.” (Orang Wangsa Maju, August 30, 2015: |"Gambar Satelit Wangsa Maju Tahun 1989").

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hawthornden_estate.txt · Last modified: 2024/01/29 18:58 by sazli