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Dr. William Leonard (W.L.) Braddon (1862-1936)

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Perihal

Dr. Braddon adalah antara tokoh awal yang membuat kajian tentang penyakit beri-beri, dan berjaya mengenalpasti tindakan pencegahan yang sewajarnya, walaupun kesimpulan dapatannya tersasar: “The other colourful figure was State Surgeon, Negri Sembilan, Mr W. L. Braddon, M.B., F.R.C.S., who devoted a considerable amount of time pioneering clinical studies and research on beriberi. His monumental work, published in book form in London in 1907, embodied the acute clinical and epidemiological observations of many years. He unfortunately narrowly missed making an epochmaking discovery of the disease being due to vitamin B1 deficiency. Nevertheless, it was the guidance provided by his pioneering work that enabled later workers in Malaya to arrive at the correct solution.” (S. M. A. ALHADY, August 1978: |"THE HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF SURGERY IN MALAYSIA").

Kronologi

1862-05-29: Dilahirkan: “BRADDON, Dr. William Leonard (SEREMBAN), M.B., B.S., Lond., F.R.C.S., Eng. ; State Surgeon ; b. May 29, 1862; i. Oct. 13, 1897,” (Japan Press, 1908: |"Who's who in the Far East. 1907-1908"), m.s.27).

1884: Selesai pengajian perubatan di Guy's Hospital:-

  • “W Leonard Braddon was the son of a doctor in Upton-on-Severn, England. He received his early education at Owens College, Manchester and undertook his medical training at Guy’s Hospital, London, obtaining his MRCS in 1884 and his fellowship for surgery from the Royal College of Surgeons of England the next year.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.55).

1887: Memperolehi ijazah MBBS dari University of London: “He graduated with an MBBS from the University of London in 1887. A distinguished student, he gained a scholarship and won a gold medal for forensic medicine.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.55).

1887-09-10: Sebelumnya ahli tentera sukarelawan Worchestershire Regiment, menjadi Acting Surgeon: “2nd Volunteer Battalion, the Worcestershire Regiment ^ William Leonard Braddon, M.B., to be Acting Surgeon. Dated 10th September, 1887.” (The London Gazette, 9 September 1887, Issue 25737, Page 4888: |"The London Gazette").

1888: Menyertai perkhidmatan perubatan di Selangor, kemudiannya dilantik menjadi State Surgeon, Negeri Sembilan:-

  • “He initially joined his father’s practice but a roving spirit led him abroad on several voyages. This resulted in him joining the medical services of the Malay States in Selangor in 1888. However, most of his career was in service as State Surgeon in Negeri Sembilan.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.55).
  • “… after some years working in partnership with his father in Upton-on-Severn, he made several voyages as a ship's medical officer, and eventually settled in Malaya as a district surgeon.” (Wellcome Collection: |"Braddon, William Leonard (1861-1935)").
  • Ketika itu, beliau adalah antara yang awal merekodkan mangsa wabak beri-beri yang melanda Tanah Melayu: “A severe outbreak of beriberi in Malaya was first observed in 1848. … British colonial reports issued between 1886 and 1901 noted tens of thousands of deaths in Sumatra, Malaya and Singapore during that time. These included reports from Dr A. W. Sinclair, who served as the Selangor State surgeon from 1882-1888, and Dr Leonard Braddon serving in that state as District Surgeon. Both reported a particularly heavy toll amongst foreign workers, known as coolies, largely brought in to work on the colonies’ plantations, where they were supplied with food as cheaply as possible.” (Nia Deliana @ Inside Indonesia, Sep 15, 2022: |"Chasing a cure for beriberi").

1897-10-13: Dilantik sebagai State Surgeon, Negeri Sembilan: “BRADDON, Dr. William Leonard (SEREMBAN), M.B., B.S., Lond., F.R.C.S., Eng. ; State Surgeon ; b. May 29, 1862; i. Oct. 13, 1897,” (Japan Press, 1908: |"Who's who in the Far East. 1907-1908"), m.s.27). Beberapa rekod tugasannya:-

  • 1900: Kekurangan pembantu yang cekap di Hospital Besar Seremban: “Dr SHR Lucy in State Surgeon in Selangor reported in 1900 that ‘praise is due to them for the way they have met this press of work: at the same time, it is impossible, with the present staff to do justice to the patients”. The same year, Dr WL Braddon, State Surgeon in Negeri Sembilan wrote ‘The apothecary at Seremban General Hospital is quite useless… but I have no qualified assistant upon whom I can place any reliance’. He found his dressers, all of whom were unqualified ‘proved capable of learning and deserving promotion’. Almost all of these subordinate staff were Asian or Eurasian.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.44).
  • 1906: Vaksinasi cacar di Negeri Sembilan: “Smallpox was a major disease in this region, and outbreaks were often deadly. … Dr Braddon in Negeri Sembilan came up with the idea to engage schoolmasters to promote and perform vaccinations. By 1906, two-thirds of the vaccinations in Negeri Sembilan were carried out by Malay schoolteachers.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.30).

1907: Penerbitan buku hasil kajiannya mengenai punca beri-beri:-

  • “He spent much of his time focused on the study of beri-beri. Although not formally trained in epidemiology, he developed epidemiologic skills and soon acquired a reputation as the most learned student of the disease. He was both thorough and meticulous in his 544 page book on ‘The Cause and Prevention of Beri-Beri in 1907’ , and epidemiologists today can still observe from it his strengths and weaknesses.*” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.54).
  • “He took an interest in tropical diseases and made important early observations on the aetiology of beriberi, associating it with the inclusion of polished rice in the diet, publishing The cause and prevention of beri-beri (London: Rebman) in 1907, an achievement recognised by the award of the Stewart Research Prize of the British Medical Association in 1912.” (Wellcome Collection: |"Braddon, William Leonard (1861-1935)").

1908: Bersara, dan menceburi bidang perladangan getah di Negeri Sembilan:-

  • “He described the design of what he suggested would be a definitive experiment for testing his hypothesis, but in 1908, before that experiment could be completed, he retired from the Colonial Service for “engaging in commercial transactions judged inappropriate for government officials”. Braddon remained in the Federated Malay States, and joined his brother as a rubber planter.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.55).
  • : Bersara dari perkhidmatan, dan menjadi peladang di Negeri Sembilan: “Braddon himself was sidelined and retired in 1908 to become a planter in Negeri Sembilan.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.54).
  • “However, he was edged out of this medical position in the Colonial Service in 1908, and became a successful rubber planter, although retaining his interest in beriberi. He joined the RAMC during the First World War, but afterwards continued as a rubber planter in the Federated Malay States until his death.” (Wellcome Collection: |"Braddon, William Leonard (1861-1935)").
  • “As a friend and colleague of Sir Charles Martin, he persuaded to him take the work on beriberi further through experimental investigation at the Lister Institute, leading to the discovery by Casimir Funk of the causation of the disease in the dietary deficiency of elements found in unpolished rice but removed in processing.” (Wellcome Collection: |"Braddon, William Leonard (1861-1935)").

1912: Menerima anugerah British Medical Association: “He won the Stewart research prize of the British Medical Association in 1912 for his work on beri-beri. … He was later president of a large estate owners’ association, a coroner, and an immigration officer. He also ran a nursing home and was even a policeman. Braddon had three daughters. He has been described as a stern-looking man, with a temper in contrast to his congenial brother.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.55).

1936: Meninggal dunia:-

  • “The depression of the 1930s affected him badly. When Braddon died in 1936 he left his widow penniless. He was buried near St Mark’s Church in Seremban on a low hill near the Government Rest House. In recognition of his great contribution, the Negeri Sembilan government granted his widow a small pension and she lived on in the Seremban Rest House.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.55).
  • “There is an obituary in The Lancet, 28 Nov 1936, p 1304, and an entry in Plarr's Lives of the Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons, 1930-1951, and a biographical article E Wylie, “The search for the cause of beriberi in the Malay peninsula: the contribution of Dr. W. L. Braddon”, Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol 61, 1988, pp 93-122.” (Wellcome Collection: |"Braddon, William Leonard (1861-1935)").

Peninggalan

  • Penulisan: “Braddon's place in the overall development of understanding of the aetiology of beriberi is analysed in David W. Fraser, “Vitamins and Vitriol: W. L. Braddon's Epidemiology of Beriberi”, American Journal of Epidemiology, Volume 148 Number 6 September 15, 1998, pp 519-527” (Wellcome Collection: |"Braddon, William Leonard (1861-1935)").
  • Sebagai mengenangi jasanya, balunya menerima sara hidup dari kerajaan, dan ditempatkan di Rumah Rehat Seremban: “In recognition of his great contribution, the Negeri Sembilan government granted his widow a small pension and she lived on in the Seremban Rest House.” (Lim Kean Ghee, 2016: |"THE HISTORY OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH IN MALAYSIA", m.s.55).

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w_l_braddon.txt · Last modified: 2023/01/09 21:02 by sazli